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PBRMaterial

Implements the PBR (Physically-Based Rendering) material system specified in the core glTF standard. The metallic-roughness material model specified in the glTF2 standard enables glTF files to be rendered consistently across platforms.

glTF extensions that influence the material model are not currently supported.

References:

Extends Material

PBRMaterial implements the common recommended material properties recommended in the base Material class.

Metallic-Roughness Material Model

All parameters related to the metallic-roughness material model are defined under the pbrMetallicRoughness property of material object. The following example shows how a material like gold can be defined using the metallic-roughness parameters:

{
    "baseColor": [ 1.000, 0.766, 0.336, 1.0 ],
    "metallic": 1.0,
    "roughness": 0.0,
    "baseColorTexture": null,
    "metallicRoughnessTexture": null,
}

The metallic-roughness material model is defined by the following properties:

  • baseColor - The base color of the material
  • metallic - The metalness of the material
  • roughness - The roughness of the material

The base color has two different interpretations depending on the value of metalness. When the material is a metal, the base color is the specific measured reflectance value at normal incidence (F0). For a non-metal the base color represents the reflected diffuse color of the material. In this model it is not possible to specify a F0 value for non-metals, and a linear value of 4% (0.04) is used.

The value for each property (baseColor, metallic, roughness) can be defined using factors or textures. The metallic and roughness properties are packed together in a single texture called metallicRoughnessTexture.

{
    "pbrMetallicRoughness": {
        "baseColor": [ 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 1.0 ],
        "baseColorTexture": null,
        "baseColorTextureCoord": 1,
        "metallic": 1,
        "roughness": 1,
        "metallicRoughnessTexture": null,
        "metallicRoughnessTexture": null,
        "metallicRoughnessTextureCoord": 1,
    },
}

If a texture is not given, all respective texture components within this material model are assumed to have a value of 1.0. If both factors and textures are present the factor value acts as a linear multiplier for the corresponding texture values. The baseColorTexture is in sRGB space and must be converted to linear space before it is used for any computations.

For example, assume a value of [0.9, 0.5, 0.3, 1.0] in linear space is obtained from an RGBA baseColorTexture, and assume that baseColorFactor is given as [0.2, 1.0, 0.7, 1.0]. Then, the result would be

[0.9 * 0.2, 0.5 * 1.0, 0.3 * 0.7, 1.0 * 1.0] = [0.18, 0.5, 0.21, 1.0]

Calculating Reflectance

The following equations show how to calculate bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) inputs (cdiff, F0, α) from the metallic-roughness material properties. In addition to the material properties, if a primitive specifies a vertex color using the attribute semantic property COLOR_0, then this value acts as an additional linear multiplier to baseColor.

const dielectricSpecular = rgb(0.04, 0.04, 0.04)
const black = rgb(0, 0, 0)

cdiff = lerp(baseColor.rgb * (1 - dielectricSpecular.r), black, metallic)
F0 = lerp(dieletricSpecular, baseColor.rgb, metallic)
α = roughness ^ 2